Northern Fowl Mites

Northern fowl mites feeding on poultry. From: "Common Lice and Mites of Poultry: Identification and Treatment." ©U.C. Regents. For the complete publication, go to link: http://ucanr.org/anrcatalog.poultrymites.

Description


Northern Fowl Mites are common external parasites that live on the body of chickens and feed on their blood both day and night and cause anemia. They are the most aggressive of all the mite species, never leaving the host, and therefore are the most detrimental to the chicken’s health, sometimes even causing death. Northern Fowl Mites are most common with chickens in caged layer facilities and are more prevalent during winter months as opposed to summer months.

 

 

Prevention


Sanitation and cleanliness are the best ways to keep mite 
infestations under control. Mites can be dropped in by wild

birds such as sparrows, or brought in on rodents who enter the coop in search of food. Humans can also act as carriers

picking up mites on clothing from poultry shows, or transferring them from coop to coop.


Diatomaceous Earth is good to use as preventative maintenance. 
It can be used in a dustbaths with sand, or as 12% weight in water

as a spray. Other insecticides can also be added to dusting areas, nesting boxes, and bedding.


Quarantining new birds is a good idea if acquiring them from poultry shows or from non-reputable dealers. Always be sure to purchase from dealers who guarantee the health of their birds.


Lastly, regularly inspect your birds for external parasites by holding them on their back with their head lower than their tail and sifting through their feathers near the vent, head, shoulders and tail. 


Life Cycle and Reproductive Cycle


The life cycle and reproductive cycle of the Northern Fowl Mite are very quick! Eggs hatch within 24 hours of being laid and full maturity is reached within four days of hatching; meaning that infestations can occur quickly and grow rapidly. They live on their host for 2-3 weeks. After 3 weeks with no host, Northern Fowl Mites cannot survive.


Symptoms and Signs


Northern Fowl Mites are tiny red/brown insects that can be found on the body near the vent, tail, and throat during the day but are so small and microscopic that you may need a magnifying glass or microscope to see them. Other signs are scabby skin and discoloration on the feathers where they lay their eggs and leave their waste. Because they gather near the vent, roosters tend to experience a drop in fertility.


The blood sucking Northern Fowl Mite can exist in large enough numbers on chickens to cause anemia. Signs of anemia in your chickens can include the following:


• Slowed growth
• Suppressed appetite
• Drop in egg production
• Reduced immunity to other diseases
• Weight loss
• Pale combs
• Death


Treatment


If mites are detected, an insecticide must be used to eliminate the population. Mites are more resistant to insecticides than lice are, so the insecticide used may need to be changed or rotated depending on the results. Not only the birds need to be treated to eliminate the population of mites, but also the coop including the roosts, nesting boxes, and all the walls. Repetitive treatments are necessary approximately once a week for three weeks to kill all the life stages of mites. The following are appropriate insecticides:

• Prozap Insectrin Dust
• PoultryGuard
• Ivermectin
• Permethrin

Diatomaceous earth does significantly reduce the population of mites as a treatment, but cannot eliminate them. Other organic treatments can include products such as PyTGanic Pro which uses the active ingredient Pyrethrum: a botanical insecticide made from chrysanthemums.  Orange Guard can be used to clean the coop and roosts, but not directly on the birds.

Resources

Damerow, Gail. Storey’s Guide to Raising Chickens. Third. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing, 2010. Print.

Jacob, Jacquie, Tony Pescatore, and Austin Cantor. "Common continuous parasites of poultry."University of

     Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service. University of Kentucky, n.d. Web. 10 Oct 2012.

     <http://www.ca.uky.edu/smallflocks/Factsheets/Common_continuous_parasites.pdf>.

John, Laura E.. "Controlling Mites in Your Poultry Flock." Backyard Poultry. Backyard Poultry Magazine, n.d. Web.

     10 Oct 2012. <http://www.backyardpoultrymag.com/issues/2/2-5/Laura_E_John.html>.

Pickworth, Carrie L., and Teresa Y. Morishita. "Common External Parasites in Poultry: Lice and Mites." The Ohio

     State University FactSheet Extension. Ohio State University, n.d. Web. 10 Oct 2012.

     <http://ohioline.osu.edu/vme-fact/0018.html>.

"Poultry Production in Mississippi." MSUcares. Mississippi State University, 14 OCT 2010. Web. 10 Oct 2012.

     <http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/disparas.htm>.

McCrea, Brigid, Joan S. Jeffrey, Ralph A. Ernst, and Alec C. Gerry. "Common Lice and Mites of Poultry:

     Identification and Treatment."University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Regents of

     the University of California, n.d. Web. 8 Dec 2012. <http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/8162.pdf>.